IAEA – SMR AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL MANAGEMENT
Small modular reactors (SMRs) have been the talk of scientists and researchers in the nuclear industry for many years — but to what extent will their debut, expected next year, create challenges in spent fuel management? It depends, say experts, on the particular SMR design and a country’s existing spent fuel management practices.
SMRs are relatively small and flexible: they have a power capacity of up to 300 MW(e) and their output can fluctuate in line with demand. This makes them particularly attractive for remote regions with less developed grids, but also for use as a complement to renewables and for non-electric applications of nuclear power. SMRs can be manufactured and then shipped and installed on site, so they are expected to be more affordable to build.
Globally, there are about 50 SMR designs and concepts at different stages of development. Three SMR plants are in advanced stages of construction or commissioning in Argentina, China and Russia, which are all scheduled to start operation between 2019 and 2022.
Countries with established nuclear power programmes have been managing their spent fuel for decades. They have gained extensive experience and have proper infrastructure in place. For these countries, management of spent fuel arising from SMRs shouldn’t pose a challenge if they opt to deploy SMRs based on current technologies, said Christophe Xerri, Director of the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology at the IAEA.
Some SMR designs have features that could reduce the tasks associated with spent fuel management. Power plants based on these designs require less frequent refuelling, every 3 to 7 years, in comparison to between 1 and 2 years for conventional plants, and some are even designed to operate for up to 30 years without refuelling. Nevertheless, even in such cases, there will be some spent fuel left, which will have to be properly managed.
To address these issues and support newcomer countries, more research and development work is required on the fuel cycle for some SMR technologies. Engineers and designers have a unique opportunity to work on solutions for the improved management of spent fuel and radioactive waste for SMRs in the early stages of development, Xerri highlighted. “This approach will help address uncertainties related to the back end of the fuel cycle, reduce costs and enhance societal acceptance of nuclear power,” he said.
The IAEA is involved in several ongoing activities on SMRs and is intensifying its efforts to support Member States’ research and development in this area.
(Source IAEA – Image: Rolls-Royce)